Scientist Rosalind Franklin made the first clear X-ray images of DNA’s structure. Her work was described as the most beautiful X-ray photographs ever taken. Franklin’s ‘Photo 51’ informed Crick and Watson of DNA’s double helix structure for which they were awarded a Nobel Prize. Franklin died of ovarian cancer in 1958, aged 37, her contribution to DNA’s discovery story unacknowledged.
Chiquinha Gonzaga (1847-1935) was a Brazilian composer, pianist and conductor. ***Born in Rio de Janeiro, from a mulatto mother and a wealthy white father. She fought for the end of slavery in Brazil. Gonzaga received an education that would ordinarily have led her to be a “sinhazinha”, a respectful officer's daughter. She learned how to read, write, and do math, but also music, especially how to play the piano, a distinctive mark of a real lady.
"It was the summer of 1905. At the races in Auteuil (near Paris) a woman appeared wearing trousers in public for the first time. Her name is unknown, but this is a picture of her. Police men had to protect her against the curiosity and outrage of the crowd. "
Botanist Matilda Moldenhauer Brooks (b. 1891) attended Harvard and conducted research along with her husband, Sumner Cushing Brooks. She discovered an antidote for carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning in the ’30s. | 34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World
Helen Richey was Amelia Earhart's copilot on one flight across the Atlantic. She became the first woman hired to be a pilot by a commercial airline in the US. She was the first woman licensed as an aviation instructor. She was the first woman to fly a scheduled mail flight. During WWII she commanded a group of women pilots for the British Air Transport Auxiliary, flying bombs between factories and airbases. She died by suicide at age 38
Biochemist Florence Barbara Seibert (1897-1991) developed the skin test for tuberculosis. After graduating from Goucher College, she worked as a chemist during World War I and then went to Yale University, where she earned a Ph.D. and made important discoveries about the ability of some bacteria to survive distillation techniques and therefore contaminate intravenous injections. During the 1930s, she taught at University of Pennsylvania and developed the tuberculosis skin reaction test,