5000 years ago an impressive culture flourished in the Indus Valley region, which today encompasses parts of India and Pakistan. The civilization that lived there came to be called: Dravidian, or the Indus Valley Civilization or Harappiana.
5th-6th C. Kashmir. Tile with Impressed Figures of Emaciated Ascetics and Couples Behind Balconies above. From a site with a Buddhist temple, the iconography is puzzling. As this mixture of Buddhist and Hindu imagery is also observed at other contemporary sites in Afghanistan and west India, these tiles appear to be part of a larger exchange that perhaps occurred in relation to the emergence of Esoteric, or Vajrayana, Buddhism.
MAP ca. 150 CE. Kushan Empire. Kujula Kadphises united the disparate tribes in the 1st C. BCE wresting control of the area from the Scytho-Parthians, the Yuezhi moved south into the N.W. Indian known as Gandhara (now parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan) and established a capital near Kabul.